Effectiveness of date seed on glycemia and advanced glycation end-products in type 2 diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic medical condition affecting more than 95% of people with diabetes. Traditionally, some medicinal plants have been considered as an effective approach in management of T2DM. This trial evaluated the effects of date seed powder (DSP) on glycemia indices and oxidative stress in T2DM patients. Methods: In this trail, 43 patients with T2DM were randomized to two groups: either 5 g/d of the DSP or placebo for 8 weeks. Levels of glycemic indices, lipolpolysaccharide (LPS), and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (s-RAGE), as well as other parameters associated with oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Independent t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for between-groups comparisons at baseline and the post-intervention phase, respectively. Results: The results showed that supplementation with DSP significantly decreased HbA1c (-0.30 ± 0.48%), insulin (-1.70 ± 2.21 μU/ml), HOMA-IR (-1.05 ± 0.21), HOMA-B (-0.76 ± 21.21), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (-3.68 ± 6.05 EU/mL), and pentosidine (118.99 ± 21.67 pg/mL) (P < 0.05, ANCOVA adjusted for baseline and confounding factors). On the other hand, DSP supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (0.50 ± 0.26 mmol/L), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (0.69 ± 0.32 U/ml), and s-RAGE (240.13 ± 54.25 pg/mL) compared to the placebo group. FPG, hs-CRP, GPx, CML, and uric acid had no significant within- or between-group changes. Conclusion: Supplementation of DSP could be considered an effective strategy to improve glycemic control and oxidative stress in T2DM patients (Registration ID at www.irct.ir: IRCT20150205020965N10). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-024-00287-1

Effect of dried fruit on postprandial glycemia: A randomized acute-feeding trial.

Background/Objectives: To investigate the effect of dried fruit in modifying postprandial glycemia, we assessed the ability of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) to decrease postprandial glycemia through three mechanisms: a glycemic index (GI) effect, displacement effect, or ‘catalytic’ fructose effect. Subjects/Methods: We conducted an acute randomized, multiple-crossover trial in an outpatient setting in 10 healthy adults. Participants received 3 white bread control meals and 12 dried fruit test meals in random order. The test meals included each of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) alone (GI effect), 4 of the dried fruits displacing half the available carbohydrate in white bread (displacement effect), or 4 of the dried fruits providing a small ‘catalytic’ dose (7.5 g) of fructose added to white bread (‘catalytic’ fructose effect). The protocol followed the ISO method for the determination of GI (ISO 26642:2010). The primary outcome was mean ± SEM GI (glucose scale) for ease of comparison across the three mechanisms. Results: Ten healthy participants (7 men, 3 women; mean ± SD age and BMI: 39 ± 12 years and 25 ± 2 kg/m2) were recruited and completed the trial. All dried fruit had a GI below that of white bread (GI = 71); however, only dried apricots (GI = 42 ± 5), raisins (GI = 55 ± 5), and sultanas (51 ± 4) showed a significant GI effect (P < 0.05). When displacing half the available carbohydrate in white bread, all dried fruit lowered the GI; however, only dried apricots (GI = 57 ± 5) showed a significant displacement effect (P = 0.025). None of the dried fruits showed a beneficial ‘catalytic’ fructose effect. Conclusions: In conclusion, dried fruits have a lower GI and reduce the glycemic response of white bread through displacement of half of the available carbohydrate. Longer-term randomized trials are needed to confirm whether dried fruit can contribute to sustainable improvements in glycemic control.