Development and characterization of gelatin-based biodegradable films incorporated with pistachio shell hemicellulose

This study aimed to incorporate pistachio shell hemicellulose into a film of gelatin and glycerol for the production of biodegradable films. The gelatin and glycerol are chosen because of their functional properties, which make it extensively used in food industry. The film composition was defined after a statistical optimization by central composite face-centered design and response surface methodology. The hemicellulose/gelatin ratio of 35.93% and the glycerol ratio of 18.02% were the optimum conditions to obtain lower film water solubility, higher tensile strength, and elongation at break values. The physical, structural, mechanical, and barrier properties of the developed hemicellulose-gelatin film were analyzed and compared with those of the gelatin film. Tensile strength and film water solubility values were reduced significantly with hemicellulose incorporation from 20.41 to 16.64 MPa and 49.57 to 39.21%, respectively, while EB was enhanced by 4.34 times. In addition, hemicellulose incorporation enhanced the water vapor permeability and the film degradation in the soil. The films were also examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The novelty of this study is to use pistcahio shell hemicellulose in the production of an edible film for the first time.

A review on some properties of almond: ımpact of processing, fatty acids, polyphenols, nutrients, bioactive properties, and health aspects

This review was focused on the proximate compounds, nutritional values, total phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, polyphenols, health aspects and uses of almond kernel and oils. Almond contained about 24–73% crude oil, 50–84% oleic and 6–37% linoleic acids, 77–3908 mg/kg β-stosterol and 5–8 mg/100 g β-tocopherol. Almonds are a good source of mono- and unsaturated fatty acids, phytochemicals, bioactive components, minerals, vitamin E, polyphenols and phytosterols and at the same time almonds have healing effects. Since almond seeds or seed oils have versatile uses, they are consumed on their own or as part of a range of food products. Almonds are considered a healthy snack when consumed due to their potential cardioprotective effects. Since the composition of almonds and its effects on health will be effective both during cultivation and processing, studies should be carried out in a way that preserves the product quality.

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk by using pressure-driven membrane process.

In this study, antioxidant (DPPH and metal chelating), DNA cleavage, biofilm, and antimicrobial properties of extracted phenol from the walnut green husk (WGH) and its different concentrate and permeate samples were evaluated. For maximum phenolic compound extraction from the WGH first, the effects of solvent type (deionized water, methanol, n-hexane, acetone, and ethanol), solvent temperature (25-75 °C), and extraction time (0.5-24 h) were optimized. Then to concentrate phenolic compounds a pressure-driven membrane process was used with four different membrane types. The phenol contents of the concentrate samples were found to be microfiltration (MF) concentrate 4400 mg/L, ultrafiltration (UF) concentrate 4175 mg/L, nanofiltration (NF) concentrate 8155 mg/L, and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate 8100 mg/L. LC-MSMS was used to determine the quantification of phenolic compounds in permeate and concentrate streams. In addition, all of the concentrate samples with high phenol content showed a high antioxidant activity as 100% with MF concentrate, UF concentrate, NF concentrated and RO concentrated. Likewise, concentrate samples were found to have very high antibiofilm activity as 82.86% for NF concentrate against S. aureus, 85.80% for NF concentrate against P. aureginosa, 80.95% for RO concentrate against S. aureus, and 83.61% for RO-concentrate against P. aureginosa. When the antimicrobial activity of the extracted phenol from WGH and its different concentrate and permeate samples were evaluated by micro dilution and disk diffusion methods, it was found that the ability of the concentrate samples to inhibit bacterial growth was much higher than permeate ones. In addition, extracted phenol from WGH and its different concentrate and permeate samples showed significant DNA nuclease activity.

Effect of cashew nut protein concentrate substitution on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and consumer acceptability of wheat bread

The effect of incorporating different proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%) of cashew nut protein concentrate (CNPC) on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and consumer acceptability of bread was investigated. Substitution of wheat flour with CNPC increased the water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity, peak and final viscosities. Substitution of CNPC in wheat bread significantly increased the protein (12.69-22.04 g/100 g), ash, crude fiber, calcium, magnesium, iron (2.09-3.36 mg/100 g), phosphorus and zinc (0.79-1.57 mg/100 g) content, while carbohydrate value decreased. Substitution of wheat flour with CNPC in bread increased the loaf weight while specific volume decreased (4.36-2.21 cm3/g). Acceptable bread was prepared with up to 15% CNPC; which contained the highest total phenolics (2.64 mg GAE/g), DPPH radical scavenging activity (71.22 µmol TE/100 g), ferric reducing antioxidant power (427.77 µmol TE/100 g) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (195.68 µmol TE/100 g) than the 100% wheat bread (1.28 mg GAE/g, 40.81 µmol TE/100 g, 375.62 µmol TE/100 g and 154.02 µmol TE/100 g)