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Products: Pine Nuts
Subject: Food Technology

Development of green composites from bio‐benzoxazine and epoxy copolymer reinforced with alkali‐treated pine nut shell particles

Authors: Gorar, A. A. K., Zhiyi, G., Wang, Z., Daham, A., Wang, J., Liu, W. B., ... & Derradji, M.
  • Journals: Polymers for Advanced Technologies
  • Pages: e6245
  • Year: 2024
In the current study, an isothermal compression molding process was used to develop enhanced green composites made from alkali-treated pine nut shell particles (TPS) reinforced in fully bio-driven benzoxazine (VB) and epoxy (EP) copolymer. Reinforcement with varying weight percent (wt%) of bio-filler enhanced the properties of composites. Composites showed a rise of 75.9 MPa, 5.8 GPa, and 5.1 kJ/m2 in flexural strength, modulus, and impact strength, respectively. Thermal stability shows that composites can endure higher temperatures and hence be classified as flame-retardant materials. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirms that composites exhibit higher storage modulus, which was elevated to 77.6% compared to the unfilled copolymer. FTIR spectroscopy analyzed the structure of copolymerized composites. Further, finite element analysis (FEA) was observed for the prepared composites. A transversely isotropic composite material model was created with the properties of composites, and stress analysis was observed. FEA outcomes are in good agreement with experimental findings. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.6245