Development and characterization of gelatin-based biodegradable films incorporated with pistachio shell hemicellulose

This study aimed to incorporate pistachio shell hemicellulose into a film of gelatin and glycerol for the production of biodegradable films. The gelatin and glycerol are chosen because of their functional properties, which make it extensively used in food industry. The film composition was defined after a statistical optimization by central composite face-centered design and response surface methodology. The hemicellulose/gelatin ratio of 35.93% and the glycerol ratio of 18.02% were the optimum conditions to obtain lower film water solubility, higher tensile strength, and elongation at break values. The physical, structural, mechanical, and barrier properties of the developed hemicellulose-gelatin film were analyzed and compared with those of the gelatin film. Tensile strength and film water solubility values were reduced significantly with hemicellulose incorporation from 20.41 to 16.64 MPa and 49.57 to 39.21%, respectively, while EB was enhanced by 4.34 times. In addition, hemicellulose incorporation enhanced the water vapor permeability and the film degradation in the soil. The films were also examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The novelty of this study is to use pistcahio shell hemicellulose in the production of an edible film for the first time.

Formulation of a probiotic product using Almond gum

Background: The application of probiotics in food has expanded significantly, yet its viability remains a challenge. In response to this issue, this study explores a unique approach. Almond gum, a natural extract from Prunus dulcis, is utilized as the primary carrier matrix for a novel probiotic product featuring Saccharomyces boulardii, a probiotic yeast. Methods: This study involves the entrapment of S. boulardii in almond gum through centrifugation (5 min at 1300 × g) and subsequent 24 h drying at 50 °C. Sensory evaluation and other investigations were conducted at different pH levels to assess viability and performance. Results: Post-drying entrapment efficiency was 83.85%, underscoring the benefits of choosing almond gum as a carrier matrix. Promising results were observed from viability testing conducted in gastric juice (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Matrix stability was assessed by measuring cfu ml-1 following 7 days' storage at different temperatures, complemented by sensory analysis. Conclusion: Almond gum is a promising carrier matrix for probiotic products. Its high entrapment efficiency and its viability under challenging pH conditions demonstrate its efficacy. It is rich in carbohydrates and serves a dual purpose by acting as a prebiotic source, as confirmed through ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) analysis. The study underscores the potential of this novel approach, providing insights into responses to viability challenges in probiotic food products. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

Macadamia oil-based oleogels as cocoa butter alternatives: Physical properties, oxidative stability, lipolysis, and application

In this study, macadamia oil-based oleogels were prepared using monoglyceride stearate (MG) as a gelator with a low critical gelation concentration (3.0 wt%). The physical properties of the oleogels were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, texture and rheological analysis. And the lipid digestion and oxidative stability of the macadamia oil were determined by pH titration and accelerated oxidation test, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, oil binding capacity, and thermal stability of the oleogels increased with increasing MG concentration, which was attributed to the formation of a network of MG crystals held together by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. Rheological analysis indicated that all the oleogels exhibited a thermally reversible solid-to-liquid transition and viscoelastic behavior at ambient temperatures. Moreover, the formation of oleogels increased fatty acid release during in vitro lipid digestion and improved the oxidative stability of the macadamia oil. In addition, the potential application of these oleogels as replacements for saturated fats in foods was demonstrated by creating a chocolate product where the cocoa butter was replaced with macadamia oil-based oleogels with a high degree of unsaturation. These results can provide guidance for the preparation of macadamia oil-based oleogels, which may increase their application in foods.


Quality evaluation of fresh pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars coated with chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite

Fresh pistachios are rich in dietary fiber, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids, but they have a short shelf life. This investigation examined the effect of pre-harvest foliar application with chitosan (500 and 1000 mg. L-1), nano-chitosan (250 and 500 mg. L-1), and chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite (250 and 500 mg. L-1) coating films on the postharvest physiology and storage of fresh pistachios (Pistacia vera cvs. Akbari and Ahmad Aghaei) cultivar during storage at 4 ± 0.5 °C. It was found that, fresh pistachios' shelf life could by increased by up to 30 days by the use of chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite coating for foliar application. The decay index of the composite coated fruits was 4-6 % lower than that of the control group, and after 50-60 days the bacterial contamination appeared in cultivars; respectively. The nanocomposite treatments reduced the fruits weight between 30 and 40 %, which was 15 % higher that of than uncoated fruits. The pre-harvest application of chitosan/TiO2 coating reduced microbial contamination, weight loss, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and saturated fatty acids, and increased unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant properties, sensory properties, essential minerals, superoxide dismutase (SOD), quality indicators and shelf life. These results demonstrated that the chitosan/TiO2 (250 and 500 mg. L-1) coating film effectively preserved the nutrient composition, sensory quality, nutritional value, antioxidant capacity and shelf life of fresh pistachio.

Variation in pigments in pecan testa during kernel development and storage

The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is an important tree nut worldwide. Browning of the testa during storage considerably reduces its quality. However, the pigments that cause browning and their accumulation patterns are poorly understood. We analyzed the color changes in the testa during the five developmental stages of the kernel after storage at room temperature to compare differences in their color and identify the pigments. Samples exhibiting different colors along with their corresponding -80 °C storage samples were selected for metabolomic analysis. A total of 591 phenolic compounds were detected, 52 phenolics showed regulatory effects on testa discoloration, and 59 metabolites were identified as possible precursors of the pigments. This study revealed the most thorough phenolic composition of pecan to date. Further, the findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of testa browning, deepens our understanding of the bioactive value of pecans, and contributes to the breeding of less browning-susceptible varieties.


What's in my Pot? Six Colletotrichum Species Causing Anthracnose in Brazilian Pecan Orchards

Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is one important exotic forest crop cultivated in South America, specifically in Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. However, diseases such as anthracnose, favored by high humidity conditions and high summer temperatures, make its cultivation difficult, causing important loss to pecan farmers. This study used morphological and molecular approaches to identify the Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose in pecan plantations in Southern Brazil. The isolates obtained from pecan fruits with anthracnose symptoms were grouped through quantitative morphological characteristics into three distinct morphotypes. Molecular analysis of nuclear genes allowed the identification of six species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in pecan: C. nymphaeae, C. fioriniae, C. gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. kahawae, and C. karsti. Three of these species are reported for the first time as causal agents of anthracnose in pecan. Therefore, these results provide an important basis for the adoption and/or development of anthracnose management strategies in pecan orchards cultivated in southern Brazil and neighboring countries.



A haplotype-resolved chromosome-level assembly and annotation of European hazelnut (C. avellana cv. Jefferson) provides insight into mechanisms of eastern filbert blight resistance

European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is an important tree nut crop. Hazelnut production in North America is currently limited in scalability due to Anisogramma anomala, a fungal pathogen that causes Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) disease in hazelnut. Successful deployment of EFB resistant cultivars has been limited to the state of Oregon, where the breeding program at Oregon State University (OSU) has released cultivars with a dominant allele at a single resistance locus identified by classical breeding, linkage mapping, and molecular markers. 'Jefferson' is resistant to the predominant EFB biotype in Oregon and has been selected by the OSU breeding program as a model for hazelnut genetic and genomic research. Here, we present a near complete, haplotype-resolved chromosome-level hazelnut genome assembly for C. avellana 'Jefferson'. This new assembly is a significant improvement over a previously published genome draft. Analysis of genomic regions linked to EFB resistance and self-incompatibility confirmed haplotype splitting and identified new gene candidates that are essential for downstream molecular marker development, thereby facilitating breeding efforts.



Development of green composites from bio‐benzoxazine and epoxy copolymer reinforced with alkali‐treated pine nut shell particles

In the current study, an isothermal compression molding process was used to develop enhanced green composites made from alkali-treated pine nut shell particles (TPS) reinforced in fully bio-driven benzoxazine (VB) and epoxy (EP) copolymer. Reinforcement with varying weight percent (wt%) of bio-filler enhanced the properties of composites. Composites showed a rise of 75.9 MPa, 5.8 GPa, and 5.1 kJ/m2 in flexural strength, modulus, and impact strength, respectively. Thermal stability shows that composites can endure higher temperatures and hence be classified as flame-retardant materials. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirms that composites exhibit higher storage modulus, which was elevated to 77.6% compared to the unfilled copolymer. FTIR spectroscopy analyzed the structure of copolymerized composites. Further, finite element analysis (FEA) was observed for the prepared composites. A transversely isotropic composite material model was created with the properties of composites, and stress analysis was observed. FEA outcomes are in good agreement with experimental findings.

Rheological Characteristics of Wheat Dough Containing Powdered Hazelnuts or Walnuts Oil Cakes

This study assessed edible oil industry byproducts, oil cakes (OC) based on hazelnuts and walnuts (HOC, WOC), to replace wheat flour dough (WD) based on farinograph and extensograph parameters and rheological measurements. The research hypothesis of this work is that replacing part of wheat flour with ground nut oil cakes modifies the rheological characteristics of the dough. WF was replaced at the level of 5%, 10% and 15%. It was shown that use of OC in flour mixtures at various levels significantly influenced the rheological properties of the dough. The water absorption of wheat flour and oil cake mixtures was higher than that of the control sample, and the average value of this indicator was 53.4%. The control sample had the lowest dough development time (DDT), and the presence of HOC or WOC in the system resulted in a significant increase in this parameter (p < 0.05). The average DDT of WDHOC cakes was 4.7 min and was lower compared to WDWOC which was 5.9 min. The WDWOC10% and WDWOC15% samples were characterized by the highest dough stability value and the lowest degree of softening (p < 0.05). The presence of OC in the flour mixtures increased the values of the storage and loss moduli, which was reflected in the K′ and K″ values. The values of these parameters also increased as the level of OC addition increased. WDHOC doughs were characterized by higher values of the K′ and K″ parameters compared to WDWOC. The results of the creep and recovery test showed that the dough with the addition of nut OC was less susceptible to deformation compared to the control dough (p < 0.05). The resistance to deformation increased with the increasing share of HOC or WOC in the mixtures. The average value of viscoelastic compliance (J1) of this parameter for WDHOC dough was on average 1.8 × 10−4 Pa−1, and for WDWOC 2.0 × 10−4 Pa−1. Nut oil cakes are an interesting technological addition to the dough. Their use may have a positive impact on the characteristics of the finished product and expand their application possibilities in the food industry. This is because the dough with the addition of nut cakes was more stiff and less flexible and susceptible to deformation.

Breakthrough curve analysis of phosphorylated hazelnut shell waste in column operation for continuous harvesting of lithium from water

In batch-scale operations, biosorption employing phosphorylated hazelnut shell waste (FHS) revealed excellent lithium removal and recovery efficiency. Scaling up and implementing packed bed column systems necessitates further design and performance optimization. Lithium biosorption via FHS was investigated utilizing a continuous-flow packed-bed column operated under various flow rates and bed heights to remove Li to ultra-low levels and recover it. The Li biosorption capacity of the FHS column was unaffected by the bed height, however, when the flow rate was increased, the capacity of the FHS column decreased. The breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and uptake capacity of the column bed increased with increasing column bed height, whereas they decreased with increasing influent flow rate. At flow rates of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/min, bed volumes (BVs, mL solution/mL biosorbent) at the breakthrough point were found to be 477, 369, and 347, respectively, with the required BVs for total saturation point of 941, 911, and 829, while the total capacity was calculated as 22.29, 20.07, and 17.69 mg Li/g sorbent. In the 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 cm height columns filled with FHS, the breakthrough times were 282, 366, and 433 min, respectively, whereas the periods required for saturation were 781, 897, and 1033 min. The three conventional breakthrough models of the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Modified Dose-Response (MDR) were used to properly estimate the whole breakthrough behavior of the FHS column and the characteristic model parameters. Li's extremely favorable separation utilizing FHS was evidenced by the steep S-shape of the breakthrough curves for both parameters flow rate and bed height. The reusability of FHS was demonstrated by operating the packed bed column in multi-cycle mode, with no appreciable loss in column performance.