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Products: Hazelnuts
Subject: Sustainability

Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals extracted from hazelnut shells: Production and stability under different harsh conditions

Authors: Ebrahimi, R., Fathi, M., & Ghoddusi, H. B.
  • Journals: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
  • Pages: 128982
  • Volume: 258(Pt 2)
  • Year: 2024
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are biodegradable particles that have emerged as promising stabilizers for Pickering emulsions. This study investigated the effectiveness of CNCs in forming the Pickering emulsion from hazelnut shells (HS), an agricultural waste. Following the alkaline and bleaching treatments applied to HS, CNCs were obtained from treated hazelnut shell with acid hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics of CNCs were investigated using dynamic light scattering, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. A high crystalline (69.6 %) CNCs with a spherical shape were obtained. Contact angle and interfacial tension tests were conducted and showed that CNCs had amphiphilic nature. Pickering emulsions were investigated for their size, zeta potential, and stability under varying CNC concentrations. The results showed that when CNCs concentration increased from 0.5 to 2.0 wt%, droplet diameter decreased approximately 1.8 times and zeta potential increased. Creaming was not observed during 28 days of storage in a concentration of 2.0 wt% CNCs. The CNC stabilized emulsions exhibited high stability within a range of pH, temperatures, and salt concentrations. This study demonstrated that CNCs extracted from HS as environmentally friendly and cost-effective materials, could serve as a new stabilizer for Pickering emulsions especially for high temperature and low pH sensitive products such as mayonnaise.