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Products: Nuts
Subject: Diet quality

Dietary fiber intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Authors: Ramezani, F., Pourghazi, F., Eslami, M., Gholami, M., Mohammadian Khonsari, N., Ejtahed, H. S., Larijani, B., & Qorbani, M.
  • Journals: Clinical Nutrition
  • Pages: 65–83
  • Volume: 43(1)
  • Year: 2023
Background: Accumulating evidence supports the effects of dietary fiber on the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there is no updated systematic review and meta-analysis that compares and pools the effect of different types of fiber on mortality. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, all prospective cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber intake and all-cause or cause-specific mortality were included. The PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases were searched up to October 2022. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed by two researchers independently. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Chi-square based test. Random/fixed effect meta-analysis was used to pool the hazard ratios (HR) or relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between different types of fiber and mortality. Results: This systematic review included 64 eligible studies, with a total sample size of 3512828 subjects, that investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Random-effect meta-analysis shows that higher consumption of total dietary fiber, significantly decreased the risk of all-cause mortality, CVD-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality by 23, 26 and 22 % (HR:0.77; 95%CI (0.73,0.82), HR:0.74; 95%CI (0.71,0.77) and HR:0.78; 95%CI (0.68,0.87)), respectively. The consumption of insoluble fiber tended to be more effective than soluble fiber intake in reducing the risk of total mortality and mortality due to CVD and cancer. Additionally, dietary fiber from whole grains, cereals, and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, while dietary fiber from nuts and seeds reduced the risk of CVD-related death by 43 % (HR:0.57; 95 % CI (0.38,0.77)). Conclusion: This comprehensive meta-analysis provides additional evidence supporting the protective association between fiber intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates.