Pb (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by nutshells, green adsorbent: Adsorption studies, regeneration studies, scale-up design, its effect on biological indicator and MLR modeling.

In this paper, agricultural waste nutshells, such as walnut and almond shell, were utilized to treat Pb(II) containing aqueous solution. Lead(II) is a typical poisonous, commercial, water-pollutant, having multiple awful effects on the environment. The effluent of the different industrial wastewater cans is treated by using leftover and excess green waste. This finding is focused on the utilization of walnut and almond shells for Pb(II) removal. These green adsorbents are characterized using SEM, FTIR, pHpzc, and BET analyzer. The operating parameters are first optimized. The pseudo-2nd order kinetic, as well as the Langmuir isotherm model, have better applicability for both nutshells. Chemical sorption processes have been reported at higher temperatures, whereas at a lower temperature, it follows the physical sorption process. Elevated temperature helps to remove the metal ion more efficiently. The sorption process is spontaneous and endothermic for both nutshells. The desorption study shows that adsorbents can be used several times. Deadly effects of Pb(II) have been reported by the RBC count of Gallus gallus domesticus. It's been observed that the treated solution is somewhat less harmful. Application study using industrial effluent is successfully demonstrated. The scale-up design operation has been investigated. Statistical modeling has also been very successfully implemented using the data collected from the experiment. The study indicates that both nutshells have the potential for the removal of Pb(II).

Effects of Peanut Shell and Skin Extracts on the Antioxidant Ability, Physical and Structure Properties of Starch-Chitosan Active Packaging Films.

In this study, the antioxidant ability of peanut shell and skin extracts and their effects on the physical and structure properties of starch-chitosan film were investigated. The results showed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of peanut skin extracts was significantly higher than the peanut shell extracts. This could be due to the rich rutin and 4-O-caffeoulquinic acid existed in the peanut skin extracts. When added the peanut skin and shell extracts into the starch-chitosan film, the apparent viscosity of film forming solution at 100 s-1 decreased. Moreover, water vapor permeability and swelling of film decreased with the addition of peanut skin and shell extracts. Two peanut extracts also increased the color L* and opacity of film. The tensile strength of film increased with the addition of peanut skin extracts, and decreased with peanut shell extracts. The addition of two extracts also resulted in the increase of endothermic temperature of starch-chitosan film. But there were no new peaks appeared in the FTIR image. Only the peaks at 3276 cm-1, 1382 cm-1, 1249 cm-1 shifted to 3273 cm-1, 1385 cm-1 and 1258 cm-1, which implied the peanut shell and skin extracts disturbed the hydrogen bond and vibration of molecular chain in film matrix.

Evaluation of biochar pyrolyzed from kitchen waste, corn straw, and peanut hulls on immobilization of Pb and Cd in contaminated soil.

Biochar has a wide range of feedstocks, and different feedstocks often resulted in different properties, such as element distribution and heavy metal immobilization performance. In this work, batch experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of biochar pyrolyzed from kitchen waste (KWB), corn straw (CSB), and peanut hulls (PHB) on immobilization of Cd and Pb in contaminated soil by planting swamp cabbage (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with a combination of toxicological and physiological tests. The results showed that biochar could all enhance the soil pH, and reduce extractable Pb and Cd in soil by 22.61%-71.01% (KWB), 18.54%-64.35% (CSB), and 3.28%-60.25% (PHB), respectively. The biochar led to a drop in Cd and Pb accumulation in roots, stems, and leaves by 45.43%-97.68%, 59.13%-96.64%, and 63.90%-99.28% at the dosage of 60.00 mg/kg, respectively. The root length and fresh weight of swamp cabbage were promoted, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased after biochar treatment. The distribution of heavy metal fractions before and after biochar treatment indicated that biochar could transform Cd and Pb into a state of lower bioavailability, thus inhibiting Cd and Pb uptake by swamp cabbage. Biochar with different feedstocks could be ranked by the following order according to immobilization performance: KWB > CSB > PHB.

In Vitro Anti-HSV-1 Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts and Pure Polyphenol Compounds Derived from Pistachios Kernels (Pistacia vera L.).

Natural compounds are a prominent source of novel antiviral drugs. Several reports have previously shown the antimicrobial activity of pistachio polyphenol extracts. Therefore, the aim of our research was to investigate the activity of polyphenol-rich extracts of natural shelled (NPRE) pistachios kernels (Pistacia vera L.) on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. The Vero cell line was used to assess the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity. The cell viability was calculated by detection of cellular ATP after treatment with various concentrations of NPRE. For antiviral studies, five nontoxic-concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) were tested. Our study demonstrated that treatment with NPRE (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) reduced the expression of the viral proteins ICP8 (infected cell polypeptide 8), UL42 (unique long UL42 DNA polymerase processivity factor) , and US11 (unique short US11 protein), and resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), 50% inhibitory concentration (EC50), and the selectivity index (SI) values for NPRE were 1.2 mg/mL, 0.4mg/mL, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed the anti-herpetic effect of a mix of pure polyphenol compounds (NS MIX) present in NPRE. In conclusion, our findings indicate that natural shelled pistachio kernels have remarkable inhibitory activity against HSV-1.

Physical, Barrier, Mechanical, and Biodegradability Properties of Modified Starch Films with Nut By-Products Extracts.

Starch-based films with phenolic extracts could replace the use of petroleum-based plastics. In this study, octenyl succinate starch (OSS) films with pecan nutshell extract (PSE) or hazelnut skin extract (HSE) were prepared. The water resistance, as well as the optical, physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of these films, were investigated. The PSE and HSE improved the water resistance (decreasing the solubility to 17% and increasing the contact angle to 96.80°) and UV-light barrier properties of the films. For PSE and HSE, as their concentrations increased, the film rigidity decreased since these extracts acted as plasticizers. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicted a homogeneous surface as a result of extracts dispersion through the polymeric matrix and the interactions between the phenolic compounds (PC) of the extracts and the OSS. The phenolic extracts from nut by-products and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch could be used to develop films to replace the conventional plastics.

Sustainable approach to almond skin mediated synthesis of tunable selenium microstructures for coating cotton fabric to impart specific antibacterial activity.

Currently, the synthesis of nanostructured inorganic materials with tunable morphology is still a great challenge. In this study, almond skin extract was employed for the biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles with tunable morphologies such as rods and brooms. The effects of various synthesis parameters on morphologies were investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which indicated that selenium brooms (SeBrs) were best synthesized using almond skin extract and optimized conditions of SeO2, ascorbic acid, pH, incubation temperature and time. Based on these results, the mechanism of SeBrs synthesis is proposed as having involved four stages such as nucleation, self-assembly, Ostwald ripening, and decomposition. Further, the test of antibacterial activity together with minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations indicated the selective, specific and good activity against B. subtilis. In addition, in situ coating of SeBrs on cotton fabric and its investigation by SEM demonstrated successful coating. Evident from plate-based assay and study of growth kinetics, coated fabric exhibited excellent anti-B. subtilis activity which demonstrated that biogenic SeBrs can be employed to coat cotton fabrics that can be used in operation theatres to reduce the episodes of Bacillus related Bacteraemia.

Peanut oil cake-derived cellulose fiber: Extraction, application of mechanical and thermal properties in pineapple/flax natural fiber composites.

In this work peanut oil cake extracted Cellulose Micro Filler (CMF) is used for the advancement of mechanical and thermal properties in natural fiber composites. This fiber powder was used in enhancing the applications of Pineapple (P)/Flax (F) natural fiber epoxy composites. The X Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of CMF showed improved Crystalline Index (Crl) of 70.25° and crystalline size of 5.5 nm. FTIR results confirmed the rich cellulose content in functional groups of filler with peaks at 1058 cm-1, 1162 cm-1, 1370 cm-1 and 1428 cm-1. Mechanical results showed a positive impact with incorporation of CMF in PF hybrid fiber composites. Thermal stability results showed enhancement in the degradation temperature, residual %, endothermic peak and enthalpy by the incorporation of CMF. In the 30% PF combinations degradation temperature T50, T70, T70 enhanced from 387.73-391.08°, 434.81-454.81° and 468.91-553.36° by the filler substitution. Similarly residual % increased from 17.69-24.35%. The combination with 35% PF showed enhancement in degradation temperature, residual percentage, endothermic peak and enthalpy with filler addition up to 3%.

Hydroethanolic extract of Juglans regia L. green husks: A source of bioactive phytochemicals.

Juglans regia L. (walnut) green husks are an important fraction of waste resulting from the walnut production, thus representing an interesting natural matrix to explore as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the hydroethanolic extract of walnut green husks was studied considering the phytochemical composition and the biological activity using different cell model assays, most of them evaluated for the first time for this matrix. From the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn analysis, sixteen compounds were identified, being the extract mostly composed of naphthalene derivatives (including tetralone derivatives) and less abundant in phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols). The cytotoxic potential of the extract was assessed against tumour (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2) and non-tumour (PLP2) cell lines. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by inhibition of the oxidative haemolysis (OxHLIA) and the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the anti-inflammatory potential by the inhibition of the NO production by the RAW264.7 cell culture. The antibacterial effects of the extract were also evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results obtained represent a stepping stone for the development of future applications using walnut green husks as a source of added value compounds with bioactive potential.

Treenuts and groundnuts in the EAT-Lancet reference diet: Concerns regarding sustainable water use.

The EAT-Lancet universal healthy reference diet recommends an increase in the consumption of healthy foods, among which treenuts and groundnuts. Both are, however, water-intensive products, with a large water footprint (WF) per unit of mass and protein and already today contribute to blue water stress in different parts of the world. The envisaged massive required increase in nut production to feed a global population with this reference diet, needs to occur in a water-sustainable way. In this paper, we identify and quantify where current nut production contributes to local blue water stress and discuss options for water-sustainable nut production. We show that 74% of irrigated nuts are produced under blue water stress (of which 63% under severe water stress), throughout many regions of the world, most notably in India, China, Pakistan, the Middle East, the Mediterranean region and the USA. We critically evaluate which nut types to promote given substantial differences in WFs. We propose sustainable intensification of nut production employing nut-specific WF benchmarks. We also recommend integrated water resources management including maximum sustainable levels of water consumption by setting of WF caps.